Conventional petrol and diesel powered automobiles are serving the human beings from last 150 years. Electric vehicles are seems to be new and hence very exciting to all of us. Till 2050 earth will be having the population of nine billion people. With rising concerns about pollution, fuel prices, global warming electric vehicles are silently killing conventional vehicles. Comparative analysis on conventional and electric vehicles will definitely help us to understand why & how this is happening.
Fuel Cost Difference
Cost of driving conventional vehicle is 3 Rs/km whereas for electric vehicle it is 0.5/km, which is six to seven times less the amount which is required to pay for combustion engine vehicles. From year 2009, gasoline prices have varied constantly through out the years. Electricity on the other hand has stayed fairly constant and within the same general price range.
Even though hybrid vehicles cost a lot less money to fuel. It does still almost cost twice that of fully electric vehicles. This picture take a satiric approach of advertising electric car compared to petrol cars . It is trying to say that, “you can save so much money with an electric car that, this is pretty much flowing out of the car.”
Emission of Conventional Vehicles Vs Electric Vehicles
The biggest advantage of electric vehicle is it is emission less vehicle. Electric cars can produce zero tailpipe emission, if they are powered with natural resources such as solar, wind, tidal, hydro and others. Gasoline cars emit about a pound of Carbon dioxide every mile. Electric cars that run with electricity from coal produces 0.8 pounds per mile.
The world today is grappling with the problem of global warming and increasing pollution index for which electric vehicle is a great solution. Due to high population and excessive traffic found in Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore etc. Children have 10% to 15% lower lung capacity than children in cleaner air. Electric Vehicle would greatly reduce this problem and improve health of citizens.
Safety Concerns for Electric Vehicle Vs Gas Powered Vehicles
In case of accidents battery does not catch fire hence safety of electric vehicles increases manifold. Electric vehicle manufacturer’s Tesla model S has achieved the best safety rating not just overall but in every subcategory. Life of modern age battery is 8 years/100000 miles while conventional vehicles ignition system suffers through series of problems and give less combustion efficiency with growing age.
In convention vehicle ignition system is responsible for the propulsion of the vehicle. With ignition system, there is requirement of fuel tank to hold fuel. Fuel has hazardous element which after burning produces polluting gases, furthermore, this pollutant is directly released into the environment. As the fuel used in automobile are flammable hence in the case of accidents the safety of vehicle reduces and chances of burning and fire increases. In India, while importing crude oil many times accident happens in ocean or inside country which further causes environmental issues.
Maintenance of Electric Vehicle Vs Gas Powered Vehicles
In the function of vehicle maintenance electric vehicle over performs the convention vehicle. Universal vehicle expenses like tire and brake changes, insurance, and structural repair are part of owning any vehicle. However, Electric Vehicle owners avoid many of the repeated costs associated with combustion engine. Maintaining gas engine is also very costly. Changing the engine oil, coolant, transmission fluid, and belts can add up in value over time.
Total parts required by any combustion engine vehicles are nearly 1380 in contrast in electric vehicle only half parts are required, which ultimately reduces the efforts and cost for maintenance. Electric vehicles are almost maintenance free other than the occasional battery replacement. Complex rechargeable batteries that are drained and recharged constantly, which leads to slow degradation and range loss over time. Due to which they need to replace after few years.
Technical Difference in Electric Vehicle Vs Conventional Vehicles
Technical parameters like efficiency, braking system, starting mechanism, starting and running torque decides the maneuverability, and experience of driving. This parameters can help to compare both mobility effectively.
Another way to look at the advantage of electric cars Vs gas powered cars is efficiency of the vehicles. Internal combustion engine used in conventional automobiles has the efficiency of 20% to 25%. This means that for every five liter of petrol used only around a liter of it went to moving car. The other four litter was wasted on just keeping the engine working. Therefore, in such case, it becomes very important to utilize energy properly. However, there is no clear solution or alternative available in conventional vehicles to increase efficiency. On the other hand EVs utilize eighty percent or more of their energy to move the vehicle. So less than twenty percent of energy is wasted in Electric Vehicles.
Ignition system is responsible for the propulsion of every conventional vehicle. During starting in the IC engine crankshaft rotate at slow speed which limits the complete combustion of fuel. Due to which SOx and NOx pollutants emission increases. At higher altitude, there is a smaller amount of oxygen in a given volume of air. Due to which, the horsepower of an internal combustion engine will decrease approximately 3.5% for each increase of 1,000 feet in altitude. Since Electric vehicles does not posses IC engine so they do not encounter such problem.
Electric vehicles are powered by batteries and driven through electric motors. Batteries provide power on demand due to which in starting electric motors can give the acceleration just like racing cars. Where as in Electric vehicle industry research is going on for front axial drive, rear axle drive, front and rear axle drive and in-wheel motors. Which will significantly improve the stating and running mechanism in electric vehicle.
Starting and Running Torque
Electric motors start instantly hence there is no such requirement like ignition system in electric vehicle, furthermore because of this property the vehicle gives instant torque. Electric vehicles are equipped and powered with batteries. The choice of battery depends on vehicle design, power requirement and loading capacity. These variables give an excellent running torque to an electric vehicle. Speed changes smoothly without any gear shifting. Its noiseless operation and performance will make you fill luxurious.
Safety of passengers and driver is of utmost importance while driving any automobile. In this braking system plays a significant role to stop the vehicle. Conventional internal combustion engine vehicles do so by wasting energy in the form of heat. The kinetic energy of the vehicle is converted in the heat due to friction between tires and braking disc. In addition to kinetic energy loss, wearing and tearing of tire and disc also takes place.
Electric vehicles look same as like conventional vehicle but in braking operation, the working principal significantly differs. Whereas in Electric Vehicle Hybrid braking system is used. Because of electric motors regenerative braking is possible in Electric vehicle. Regenerative braking harness the kinetic energy which would have gone waste in friction process during braking operation.
Equipment and Assemblies
In electric vehicle, internal combustion engine is not available hence equipment associated with it are absent. Like ignition coil, spark plug, TCI unit, carburetor, fuel tank, fuel pump and Exhaust system etc. Various electric motors used and available are DC motor, Induction motor, Permanent magnet synchronous motor, Brushless DC motor and switch reluctance motor. In case of electric vehicle induction motor and brushless dc motors are used with advanced power electronics.
Following Table gives the comparison between conventional and electric vehicle
|Sr. No||Conventional Vehicle||Electric Vehicle|
|1||Internal Combustion Engine||Electric Motor|
|2||Fuel Tank and Fuel Pump||Battery and Electricity for Charging|
|3||Hydraulic Braking||Electric Braking System|
|4||Ignition System||Instant Start as of electric Motor|
|Capacitor Discharge Ignition Unit|
|5||Exhaust System||Zero emission|
|6||Analog Cluster Unit||Digital Cluster Unit|
|7||Energy Density of Fuel is much Higher||Energy Density of Battery is lower.|
|8||Clutch and Gear are Required||No clutch or transition gear are required|
- Ahmad, S. u. R. Shah and M. S. Siddiqui, “Optimization of an internal combustion engine’s efficiency for fuel conservation & green environment,” 2014 International Conference on Energy Systems and Policies (ICESP), Islamabad, 2014, pp. 1-9.
- K. Baghel, P. Kumar and P. Kumar, “Scenario of electric and hybrid electric vehicles by 2030,” 2015 IEEE International Transportation Electrification Conference (ITEC), Chennai, 2015, pp. 1-7.
- The national ACAEMIC PRESS Chapter 1, Source s and effects of carbon monoxide Emission